Solid Waste Management has become one of the major challenges of the urban planner in the States. With high annual growth in urban population and rapid pace of urbanization the situation is becoming more and more critical with the passage of time. State Government has put additional priority to the management of solid waste, especially in the urban areas of the State.
Management of solid waste is a primary responsibility of the urban local bodies. An assessment of the problem has suggested the following areas, which are needed to be taken care of while managing the huge solid wastes that are being regularly generated. They are - Identification of land for disposal of Solid Waste; Mobilization of financial resources for taking up one or more projects; Sharing of land between adjacent municipalities for an Integrated Regional Solid Waste Management; Use of appropriate technology for storage, transportation, disposal and processing of waste; Awareness generation among the citizens, community participation and capacity building and setting up of orientation for solid waste management in the Urban Local Bodies.
Managing of Solid Waste involves various steps which are summarized below :
Segregation waste at the source.
Collection at the source with different segregated material in different package.
An optimization of load release and collection point (both primary and secondary).
Improvement in transportation system compatible to the type of load.
Selection and identification of transportation route with improved capacity of carrying.
Upgradation of disposal ground as per the solid waste-land fill guideline of CPCB.
Adoption of a systematic disposal technique suitable to the type and quality of waste generated.
Possible marketing of the product (if any) from the disposal ground.
Organising awareness and motivation camp in the locality.
Involvement of the community.
To manage the problem of solid waste, two agencies are primarily working in the urban areas, which are -
Concerned Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) with financial assistance from State Govt. & P.C.B.
Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA) in KMA areas.
Recently, a Solid Waste Management Programme in 6 ULBs has been taken up under financial assistance from JBIC at Dirghanghi mouza under Champdani Municipality (details of this project is enclosed later).
Under Sub-Mission-I of JNNURM, 2 projects - one at KMA covering 10 municipalities and another at Asansol has been taken up. Details of which is mentioned later.
A Solid Waste Management Mission has been set up under the Municipal Affairs Department. This mission has already been registered as a society and is meant to coordinate the entire programme of solid waste management. The Mission would also explore the possibility of organizing solid waste on a regional basis to ensure the economy of scale, as small projects tend to be non-viable. The society has held its first meeting and it has been decided that for setting up of such projects on a regional basis the funds will be provided through the Mission, which will have its own bank account.
A project under the Italian Assistance for management of solid waste of 16 municipal towns covering a total project cost of Rs. 26 crores has been taken up. This project also includes water supply of these towns also (Detailed note enclosed).
Besides, Municipal Affairs Department, KMDA and WBPCB are also arranging funds for the project in various ULBs. 50 per cent of the fund from 12th Finance Commission has been allotted to ULBs to manage the problem of solid waste since financial year 2005-06. So far an amount of Rs. 48.60 crores has been released to various ULBs for this purpose from the 12th Finance Commission fund and another Rs. 2.58 crore has been released from time to time from various other heads like URIF, Eleventh Finance Commission Fund etc.
(A) Projects taken up by KMDA:
KMDA has taken up municipal solid waste management projects at Panihati, Chandannagore, Baranagar, Dum Dum, South Dum Dum and Bidhannagar municipalities under Megacity schemes, Bhadreswar municipality with fund from Municipal Affairs Deptt. and Model Project at North Dum Dum and New Barrackpore municipality jointly financed by CPCB and KMDA. Approved project cost of the ongoing schemes mentioned above is Rs. 22.5 crores.
(B) Projects taken up Municipal Engineering Directorate:
The Municipal Engineering Directorate has also framed a few detailed project reports for the 22 municipalities outside KMA and Bidhannagar Municipality within KMA. All the 23 DPRs have been approved by WBPCB. Besides, M.E.Dte. has prepared preliminary report of 63 towns. Apart from that, 3 municipalities - Durgapur M.C., Siliguri M.C. and Chandannagore M.C. has been prepared by the concerned ULBs by engagement of consultants and all these DPRs have been approved by WBPCB.
(C) JBIC Project:
An Integrated Solid Waste Management scheme for six municipal towns namely - Champdani, Baidyabati, Rishra, Serampur, Uttarpara-Kotrung and Konnagar for a common shared disposal scheme at Dirghangi mouza under Hooghly district was conceived by KMDA, as the towns did not have enough land for individual solid waste disposal. The total population of the 6 municipalities is around 9 lakhs (approx.) and projected population that will be benefited is around 11 lakhs upto 2025. The 50 acres of land at Dirghanghi mouza will be utilized for the sanitary land fill site construction. From the study done by the SAPROF mission, it is found that out of an annual generation of 1,02,582 sq. tones of waste, compost waste is to the tune of 46,000 sq. tones and recyclable waste to the tune of 10,000 sq. tones.
The project has primarily been divided into 5 packages which are - Primary Collection, Secondary Transport, Setting up of Transfer Station and Compost Plants, Setting up of Regional Waste Management Centre (RWMC) with Sanitary Landfill Site with Septic Tank sledge treatment facility.
The project will be monitored by a Project Management Unit (PMU) to be headed by Secretary, KMDA. The PMU will function under the guidance of a Steering Committee under the Chairmanship of Principal Secretary, Urban Dev. Deptt., Govt. of West Bengal, Finance Deptt., Chairpersons of 6 municipal towns and representatives from JBIC-New Delhi.
Total project cost is Rs. 170.20 crores out of which JBIC contribution is around 145 crores and rest Rs. 25 crores to be borne by State Government. The project is likely to be completed by 2010.